Tag Archive | Mozambique

Objections to Minerals and Petroleum Resources Bill

Exploration investment threatened……

Roughnecks wrestle pipe on a True Company oil drilling rig outside WatfordProposed changes to the Minerals and Petroleum Resources Bill (MPRDA) were given the “thumbs down” sign by a number of international participants in the oil and gas industry who provided the minister of mineral resources with a solid indication that the amendments to the Bill are not acceptable as they stand if major investment is to be expected or gas exploration encouraged.

Shell SA was largely ambivalent, although calling for greater clarity on a number of issues.

Confrontation was clearly evident from some of the submissions made by members of the oil and gas exploration industry, however, to a number of principles contained in the MPRDA Bill, the most common issues being lack of clarity for investment purposes and objections to the consolidation of the B-BBEE charters for mining and liquid fuels.

Plenty to think about

oil rigWhilst the chairperson of the portfolio committee of mineral resources claimed there were over six hundred pages from the private sector on the subject which the minister of mineral resources already had stated would probably be a contentious matter, a number of exploration companies were quite vociferous in their objections, both in their oral hearings and when it came to questioning from MPs.

At the last minute the submission from PetroSA was withdrawn subsequently explained by the CEO of PetroSA to the portfolio committee on energy as being for reasons of signatures to various confidentiality agreements.

The amendments contained in the Bill are extensive, including proposals to seek to promote beneficiation of resources: extend government ownership into all ventures; place two state officials on the boards of companies to monitor BEE compliance; the combining of both industry BEE charters; the dissolution of the Petroleum Agency of SA (PASA) and to declare “certain minerals” as strategic resources.

Anadarko at sea over Bill

anardarkoAnadarko SA, a subsidiary of Anadarko Petroleum Corporation who stated they were one of the world’s largest independent oil and gas exploration and production companies with over 5,000 employees and were currently in partnership with PetroSA in Mozambique waters, said their primary areas of concern with the MPRD amendments were that they caused total fiscal instability and uncertainty, something they were not used to working with.

They preferred a dedicated regulator to deal with the oil and gas industry who dealt with only that, they said.   On the issue of fiscal stability, their CEO, Emil Ranoszek, stated that the new Bill “lacked robust economic stability provisions to protect the rights and legitimate expectations of existing rights and permit holders going from an exploration right through to a production right”.

Risk at unacceptable levels

Anadarko, he said, was “committed to establishing a mutually beneficial relationship with the South African state and that oil and gas companies and (they) were ready to make significant investments in South Africa but the Bill in its current form disturbed this balance and raised commercial risk to unacceptably high levels”.

Ranoszek noted that PetroSA was a 20% shareholder in the areas where Anadarko already had a license.    Anadarko was one of the few companies in the world, he said, which had the technical knowledge to “draw the water depths” where they were currently working. If the terms, conditions and risks were deemed to be too high and Anadarko decided not to proceed with operations, then the company would relinquish its licenses.

How PetroSA was going to decide to handle such a situation was unknown and he could not speak for them.

Money flowing to communities

When asked how Anadarko was contributing to the job creation situation in Mozambique, Ranoszek replied that this had been both in the form of direct and indirect jobs from services providers and other sourcing companies. The revenue generated was in the billions of dollars, he said, with the result that Anadarko “was literally building small towns along the coast.”

Anadarko was presently funding a programme in a Mozambican University for the study of petroleum engineering “to upscale the locals in terms of petroleum skills and knowledge.”

ExxonMobil says no clarity

Exxon mobileRuss Berkoben, president of ExxonMobil said the amendments would have several adverse consequences for the growth potential of the South African oil and gas industry. There was “much ambiguity as to the State’s intent”, he said.

Clarity was required regarding the concept that the state would be issuing so-called special shares if it exercised an option for an interest and the state’s right to appoint two directors to a management board of a production operation.”  The Bill gave no clarity on how such matters would be applied.

Berkoben said the minister had to recognise the differences between the petroleum industry and the mining sector and it was his opinion was that PASA should be retained as a body, an entity that understood many of the complexities of his industry, some of which he outlined.  The dissolution of PASA was unwise, he suggested, and with no idea of what regulations were intended, the situation regarding investment had become totally fluid.

BEE  and beneficiation a problem for industry

On the issue of the proposed fines for non-BEE compliance, ExxonMobil said that this would further compromise the viability of certain petroleum operations and discourage expenditure on exploration and development work programmes.  On beneficiation requirements Berkoben stated that he could not visualise how these were applicable to the petroleum exploration or gas industry in reality, other than the minister having rights to offer fuel to outlets with different pricing structures downstream.

When asked by MPs if ExxonMobil had consulted at ministerial level on the Bill and its proposals, Berkoben replied that the answer was simply that ExxonMobil had not been consulted as a stakeholder originally regarding the basis of the proposed changes and he felt that they were being imposed on the oil and gas industry. They were unwarranted, he said.

SA may loose opportunity

impact fieldSean Lunn, managing director of Impact Oil and Gas Ltd, told the committee that the company held an exploration right and three technical cooperation permits along the eastern coast of South Africa and prospects so far identified lay in very deep water and a long way offshore, with the Agulhas current which heavily impacted on exploration along the coastline.

He explained that the oil and gas exploration industry was a dynamic, worldwide business and countries were ranked by their “prospectivity” in fiscal terms, resulting in an industry that was willing to take such risks as proposed on South Africa’s East Coast, one of the most dangerous in the world, when it provided the rewards that were commensurate with the risks taken.

Impact was partnering with ExxonMobil, he explained, and the potential benefits for South Africa “were great, not to mention that the country could become self-sufficient in oil and gas.  South Africa was currently considered to have very high geological risk as no major oil or gas fields had yet been found.

If the current process was unable to find a mutually workable solution, the possibilities that existed offshore may, therefore, lie untapped for decades to come and the huge potential benefit to the country could remain unrealised, he concluded.

Perilous uncertainties

A briefing by the Offshore Petroleum Association of South Africa (OPASA) was made by the acting chairperson, Vusumuzi Sihwa, who re-iterated that the oil and gas exploration environment was challenging environment; high risk; had a surprisingly low success rate with a massive capital outlay to explore a hostile offshore environment such as the East Coast of Africa; and with no guarantee of commercial success.

South Africa’s potential resources, coupled with the current legislation, encouraged the industry to take these huge risks but the MPRDA Bill created “perilous uncertainty for the industry” through lack of stability, uncertainty, coupled with added confusion through the disbandment of PASA.

Sihwa said oil and gas companies could simply shift their focus to other global opportunities.  He suggested that a full working group of all stakeholders, not just some, be convened before the President signed the Bill and the group engage meaningfully and in good faith to reach a mutually agreeable way forward.

OPASA recommended that an upstream petroleum regulator be retained as one unit in one location.

Changing playing fields

Under questioning, the company said existing regulations and the operating environment were very favourable, which was why almost all the prospecting blocks were taken up. The current amendments had brought an element of uncertainty to the table; “the rug was being pulled from under the feet of the industry and this was now a worry, especially whilst projects were in process.” Companies had come into South Africa in terms of a set of rules which were now being decisively altered, he said.

With regard to the liquid fuels charter, OPSA complained that they have never been part of any matters involving mining charters and it was incorrect to impose regulations historically from one industry upon another industry.

Unintended consequences of Bill

sasolIn a separate presentation, Sasol, represented by Johan Thyse, said that Sasol was different to many in the oil and gas industry as it was present throughout the value chain. Consequently government policy and regulation affected the company extensively. Thyse warned the chairperson that the Bill, as it stood, would have serious unintended consequences for both industries.

He said the proposals if left unchallenged would severely affect Sasol’s ability to execute its strategy in South Africa and play its role in the National Growth Path and in the National Development Plan.

Sasol commented in detail on issues surrounding free carried interest and also the mining charter as compared with the liquid fuels charter; the concept of “concentration of rights” which they were highly critical of; the transfer of petroleum licencing; what was referred to in the Bill as regional regulators; the disbandment of PASA and beneficiation as it affected Sasol.

Environmental off beam

They were particularly and deeply concerned regard environmental management issues proposed and the authorisation of issues surrounding increasing the extent of a mining rights through amendments; the removal of prescribed time-frames on many issues and the matter of redefinition of strategic minerals and any consequent effect upon on exports.

Under questioning Sasol said there was total lack of clarity on many issues. Coal for example did not follow cadastral boundaries on the issue of rights as did maritime resources and there was confusion on beneficiation targets and time-frames as to whom and what it applied to.

When asked whether the Bill, with its uncertainties and bearing in mind Sasol’s stakeholders and shareholders, would make it easier or harder to operate in South Africa Thyse replied that “due to the lack of clarity on investment in the Bill, Sasol certainly would re-look at how and where it would invest.”

Investment climate threatened

shellJan W Eggink, Upstream General Manager, Shell SA, said their primary concern where matters equity ownership provisions in the mining charter and how this would the affect investment climate. He said that his company fully supported government’s B-BBEE agenda and matters related to a state interest in the petroleum and mining industry but he needed clarity on whether mining, offshore gas exploration on BEE issues could possibly be combined under one set of rules in view of their disparity.

Under questioning, Egglink called for “more constructive engagement with government” on the combining of matters affecting both the mining and onshore gas industry”.  His overall opinion was that it was difficult to say much on the MPRDA without any knowledge of how any regulations might work.

It was after the Shell presentation, that it was announced by the chair that the PetroSA submission had been withdrawn although the absence from the hearings had been noticeable.

Refer previous articles in this category
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//bee/mprda-bill-causes-contention-parliament/
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//uncategorized/mineral-and-petroleum-development-bill-grabs-resources/
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//energy/draft-mprda-bill-for-comment/

Posted in BEE, Energy, Enviro,Water, Facebook and Twitter, LinkedIn, Trade & Industry0 Comments

SACU trade split a result of EU bullying, says DTI

No choice for minorities…..

sacu logoThe department of trade and industry is not blaming SACU members for signing EU trade agreements despite SA protests, since in reality “a gun had been held to their heads” and, as small countries, they had been presented with little choice but to sign.

This was said by Dr Rob Davies, minister of department of trade and industry (DTI), when advising the portfolio committee on trade and industry of a number of important decisions that were shortly to be made regarding the future of the South African Customs Union (SACU).

Fractious

Although the revenue generated from the SACU was significant for smaller economies within the union of South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS), a major decrease in customs revenue during the current global economic recession and “significant disagreements” amongst BLNS members, particularly over the EU trade agreements, had caused a slowing down of the development of new partnership agreements.

Minister Davies said South Africa had proposed a 5-point plan.   However, progress towards a satisfactory relationship between the parties “had been rather uneven”.    , Whilst 50% of the revenue was shared between the partners other than South Africa and South Africa contributed as much as 98% towards revenue, tariffs were in one way or another set to benefit South African industry as the most industrialised country in the partnership.  The other parties were sensitive to this, he said.

Starting again

sacu mapMinister Davies said that currently, DTI was busy with the implementation and promotion of the new SACU agreement “which in the past had a long history of uneven colonial and apartheid arrangements which were first established in 1910 to serve British colonial interests.”

A new SACU agreement had been put into force in 2004, he said and had served until now. A common external tariff was maintained under the agreement, which allowed for free trade within the SACU market.

New development plan

The 5-point plan for a future agreement, the result of a summit talks meeting, was to investigate whether customs revenue should go to industrial development projects; whether revenue be used to develop value chains from one country to another; how to prevent the proliferation in smuggling; the necessity to build a centralised secretariat to run the SACU and, finally, how to strengthen the engagement with foreign countries on trade matters.

For South Africa, Dr Davies maintained the key aspect of any plan was to contribute in a way that gave financial certainty for BLNS members for financing of regional infrastructure plans and for industrial development projects. He maintained that if these countries grew, then South Africa would benefit from increased markets.

He further added that little progress had been made “due to the lack of change in the financial flow of the revenue”, indicating that a key reason for lack of progress was because of divergences in policy perspective and policy priorities among members of the SACU.

Motives in doubt

Looking ahead, the minister said differences were emerging as a result of clashing views on the role of tariffs since South Africa viewed tariffs as tools of industrial policy, while for other countries tariffs were mainly viewed as a source of revenue. “This is primarily an issue of the countries who view themselves as consumers rather than producers”, he said.

“In addition, without common industrial and trade policies among SACU members, consensus decision-making was continually at risk of gridlock.”

Two core challenges remained unresolved within the SACU, minister Davies told parliamentarians.    First, was the development of common policies among countries that varied dramatically in terms of economic size and population, as well as levels of economic, legislative and institutional development.     Secondly, there was a lack of an effective decision-making procedures within the general body that was able to take into account differences amongst the members.

“As such, the next steps that South Africa took were vital to the process”, he said.

Frank talks

Minister Davies said South Africa had now to re-assess how best to advance development and integration in SACU and then have an open discussion among SACU members.  The development of a common approach to trade and industrial policy was the most urgent matter, he said, with a discussion on appropriate decision-making procedures on sensitive trade and industry matters.

Parliamentarians asked whether, since this appeared an uphill battle, DTI should not rather instead concentrate on advancing the Southern African Development Community (SADC) but minister Davies said that whilst the SACU was indeed not the most important entity in the region, it was an important aspect in the broader goal of creating harmony in the region and better trading prospects.

The main priority for regional integration, he said, was the creation of large regional markets that could serve industrial integration between countries and, meanwhile, the SACU issue had to be resolved along the way.

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Illegal diesel coming in from Mozambique

DOE working with customs……

Department of energy (DoE), admitted to the portfolio committee on energy that they knew of illegal diesel fuel imports emanating from Mozambique and that the department was working with customs and excise officials to track down culprits. DoE was reporting on its third and fourth quarter performance figures.

DoE confirmed that in many cases tanker transport was being used and in most instances the fuel itself was sub-standard, sometimes being a mixture of diesel and other fuels such as paraffin. Most of the fuel was being offered to farmers at cheap rates.

The subject arose when Mr L Malaudzi, acting chief operating officer, was outlining to members many of the issues involved in DoE’s programmes on governance and compliance. He explained the department’s inability to hold a planned anti-fraud workshop due to time constraints and other more pressing issues but promised that such a workshop would be conducted in the first quarter of 2013/4 and he would call stakeholders.

Focus point Mpumalanga

Questions arose from opposition members that fuel was being offered for sale in some areas of Mpumalanga from such sources. Tseliso Maqubela, deputy director general, confirmed that DoE was aware of such incidents and that the department of customs and excise had many problems with goods passing through this “porous border” nearby and that cheap and sometimes “dirty” fuels were on the list of issues.

Maqubela confirmed in his report to parliamentarians on petroleum regulations during the final quarter of 2012/3, that 92 site inspections over and above the target of 1500 sites had been completed but that no fuel sample testing was conducted due to a lack of budget for this function. This subject was to be deferred to next year, he said.

No budget to investigate

In discussing fuel specifications generally, Maqubela confirmed that DoE would “speak to industries to see if we can re-prioritise the matter”. He did not elaborate on this as to whether he was talking about capital projects or fuel mixes generally. He said, however, that on border transfers, particularly by road, had to be investigated and a budget of R50m had been requested next year from the fiscus to follow up on this. At the moment, only diesel imports were being followed up in investigations, such investigations also being limited.

On fuel pricing generally, he said that a desk top study on basic fuel pricing (BFP) was being undertaken, the stakeholder discussion portion of the study having been completed in March of this year.   BFP was a major issue nationally at the moment, he said, as were various items that went to make up its structure. He hoped that most of the issues would be resolved with stakeholders towards the end of this year.

Crude oil priorities

On existing crude oil matters, Saldanha, Milnerton and Durban were the current priority areas at the moment for infrastructure development, he said, and whereas before 28% of crude imports came from Iran, he said, “We haven forced to diversify which is exciting because it introduces the issue of African trade”.

The US is now producing considerable quantities of light crude which again has reversed trends and “there is an opportunity for Africa, particularly Angola and Nigeria, to deal with us and take up slack.”

Clean energy savings

On clean energy issues, Ompi Aphane, deputy director general, said that that so far major savings in terms of the municipal energy saving plan had been recorded with fifteen of the twenty eight participants in the DoE programme having registered savings, which Aphane said had translated into some R37m a year and 31,000MWh to the national grid.

However, he reported that the intended strategy plans for biomass, biogas and biofuels had got nowhere and DoE were looking at taking away from SANEDI the responsibility for this undertaking.

Posted in Fuel,oil,renewables, Justice, constitutional, Public utilities, Trade & Industry, Transport0 Comments

Mozambique One Stop Border Post almost there

One Stop Border Post (OSBP) agreement ready

moz flagGovernment has told parliamentarians that indications are that the Mozambique government will finally sign the final portions, or annexes, to the One Stop Border Post (OSBP) agreement between South Africa and Mozambique in the very near future.

Mr Kosie Louw told the standing committee on finance that an original document of intention was signed in September 2007 by both parties but now consensus on all issues had been reached between the two countries, covering all the departments affected by cross-border issues.

Two countries, one clearance

There were three annexes, Louw said, and indications were that the Mozambique Minister of Finance was signing immediately.  The benefit of the OSBP was that goods would be inspected and cleared by the authorities of both countries with only one stop, which would speed up the movement of goods in the interests of facilitating trade.

Background

Louw, who is chief legal officer at SARS, introduced the briefing by explaining the difference between bonded and state warehouses. The main purpose of bonded warehouses, he said, which were privately managed and licensed subject to certain conditions, was to allow imported goods to be stored temporarily in order to defer the payment of customs duties.

Duties and taxes were suspended for an approved period – generally two years, Louw said, but these had to be paid before the goods entered into the market or were exported.  The licensee bore full responsibility for the duty and taxes payable on the goods, which could be removed only after all the customs requirements had been met.

State gets the illicit goods

State warehouses, on the other hand, Louw said, were managed by SARS for the safekeeping of uncleared, detained, seized or abandoned goods.  They provided a secure environment for the storage of goods in which the state had an interest.

Goods that had not been cleared within the specified timeframes, for instance, had to be removed to a state warehouse; otherwise the ports would become clogged up.  Counterfeit and dangerous or hazardous goods were moved to specialised warehouses.

Storage was normally allowed to remain for 60 days and if the goods were not collected, after fulfilling all the legal requirements, they could be sold with the proceeds applied to any duties, expenses or other charges due.  Any surplus would be paid to the verified owner, but if it was not claimed, it would be paid into the national revenue fund, Louw said.

Where the goods go

Goods that were appropriated to the state, or that were condemned and forfeited, could be sold, destroyed, transferred to another state organ, or made available for disaster relief, basic human necessities for the poor, or for donation to any country in need of aid in such circumstances, Louw concluded.

MPs noted that had taken over six years for the Mozambique OSBP to be finalised, so would it be possible, with the experience gained to negotiate with other countries to obtain one stop agreements and move at a faster rate?

The response was from SARS that South Africa was looking at the establishment of more such posts and had already had two discussions with Zimbabwe.  It was hoped it would take less time to reach an agreement, as many lessons had been learnt through the Mozambique experience.  Because an OSBP involved South Africa and a foreign country operating in a specific area, the main issue was ensuring that South African law applied in the foreign country.  This was a difficult area at international law, Louw said, and explained that this was why the Mozambique process had taken so long.

What is earned as revenue

When asked by members what the average revenue per year was from import taxes, a figure was supplied of between R15bn and R20bn being generated by customs alone, while import VAT was well over R100bn, and the overall income generated annual was more than R150bn.  A substantial amount of the VAT income was refunded, however, because of the input-output system.

When asked about losses, Ms Rae Cruickshank, group executive, customs operations, SARS, said losses obviously occurred through customs avoidance and evasion, so it was consequently very difficult to provide an overall figure on customs duty not being paid as evasion was evasion. Estimates varied as well according to the different border posts but such losses could possibly be anything from 10% to 30%, depending on whether it was a developed or developing country that was transacting.

Short of staff

Avoidance again was about approximations, she said, and this involved the smuggling of goods such as narcotics, or copper, which could only be quantified on the basis of what had been seized.   Although SARS had 3,000 customs officers and 72 dogs, the prevalence of smuggling was very high.  It was not unusual to apprehend up to 10 kg of cocaine a weekend.

Ms Cruickshank said it was impossible to process all containers coming into the country, more than 4 million a year, through scanners alone.  A scanner’s maximum capacity was to scan six containers an hour and this translated into 52,416 containers a year.   More scanners were being considered for Durban, Cape Town and Beit Bridge, where cigarette smuggling in the last named case was a serious concern.

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Better year for PetroSA with offshore gas potential

In presenting their annual report and internal audit results to the portfolio committee on energy, PetroSA told parliamentarians that progress had been made on the Ikhwezi gas fields off the Mozambique coast and that four wells were originally drilled with two more recently completed, all resulting in a “sub-sea” pipeline to carry gas ashore from the platform created now being created.

The first actual operational well drilling is to be commenced by the end of 2012 and gas is expected to flow by 2013.   This should extend the life of Mossel Bay refinery to 2020.

CEO, Nosizwe-Nocawe Nokwe would not confirm the size or volumes involved in the Ikhwezi project -chairperson Sisa Njikelana reminding parliamentarians that PetroSA was working in a competitive market and certain facts, especially on crude oil and gas  matters, had to be withheld.

Nevertheless, she commented that PetroSA had received an “unqualified” audit opinion and generally things from a management perspective “were looking up”.

Ms Nokwe said that PetroSA’s activities in the downstream market were a “hive of activity” but from her presentations it had to be assumed by MPs attending that this was in the storage area and not in service station ownership.

When asked why PetroSA should be interested in such areas of expansion as “downstream”, as she referred to it, Nokwe replied that it was because “PetroSA had a vision of being a totally integrated oil and fuel supply company”.

A good number of the questions from MPs on the annual report surrounded the unsuccessful ventures to obtain crude oil in Equatorial Guinea where R1, 412m had to be written off in the year under review and in Egypt where R945m was also subject to a write off. The audit opinion was naturally highly critical of such ventures, referring to these as “impairments” but not “wasteful and unfruitful”, however, as was pointed out.

Also “significant uncertainties”, according to the internal audit, surrounding the sale of Brass Exploration Limited and PetroSA Nigeria (SOC) which Nosizwe Nokwe reported on as “ventures which were currently in process of litigation” and therefore, she felt, sub-judice as far as any debate was concerned.

Most of the problem with Brass Exploration had arisen because the investment was disallowable under the PFMA as the business was largely family-owned.

equitorial guinea

On further questioning by MPs, Ms Nokwe finally explained that the Equatorial Guinea venture was apparently on the basis that a partner, subject to certain conditions, had to be found in a specified period and as this had not happened, it was felt prudent to write off the exercise as the contractual arrangements appeared doomed. Nevertheless, in the last few days, such a partner has been located and the matter is being re-discussed.

The focus of PetroSA, said Nosizwe Nokwe, remained as sustaining the Mossel Bay GTL refinery and to develop Ikhwezi.   Group profits had risen 54% in the year under review. PetroSA was on the project group involved and supported the quest to ascertain the viability of shale gas in the Karoo.

Crude production figures for the group were given as 0.8 million barrels which was only 50% of target, the department of performance, monitoring and evaluation (DPME) had noted, which was disappointing as Ms Nokwe said, but the challenges at the production facility were now resolved.    Indigenous refinery production stood at 6.5m barrels for 2011/2.

Chief financial officer, Nkosemntu Nika, said that the small income involved was mostly generated from cash interests of the group but that a feature of the balance sheet was that it was debt-free. The crude oil market experienced some difficulties and resulted in a significant drop in storage rental income.

On the reasons for two recent trips to Venezuela and whether these had been “what might be termed as successful”, as put by the questioner, Ms Nokwe replied that indeed there had been two trips and like the Africa focus, the idea was to build relationships in markets not necessarily tied to old routine arrangements such as in the Middle East but to “forge new initiatives”.

No specific contracts or purchases were envisaged in the short term, she said, in view of the fact that Venezuela only had heavy crudes but there was no telling what could be done with a possible refinery at, say, Mathombo, Coega, she commented. SA refineries were geared to light oil requirements and Iran situation had clearly highlighted what the problems were ahead.

When asked about the possibility of PetroSA continuing with the objective defined as the Mathombo project, she said PetroSA needed a lot more support to start getting this “to the drawing board stage”. The country faced a real risk of fuel supply shortage, as stated in the PetroSA annual report, and also in the fuel energy reports contributed to by PetroSA in the past, but, like most, PetroSA awaited the results of IRP findings on energy supply requirements.

However, again she lobbied parliamentary support for a refinery at Coega.

The DG concluded that PetroSA was concerned on the declining feedstock picture and was working with Eskom on LNG development and alternatives.  The tanks at Saldanha Bay were discussed, but only to the extent that spare space could be taken up for rental on the basis of what would suit PetroSA.   As to their future, she said the Central Energy Fund should be asked, as they were studying the matter.

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Posted in Cabinet,Presidential, Energy, Finance, economic, Fuel,oil,renewables, Mining, beneficiation, Public utilities, Trade & Industry, Transport, Uncategorized0 Comments


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