Tag Archive | department of water and environmental affairs

DOE spells out biofuels and biomass

Biomass, biofuels and jobs……

On the subject of creating biofuels and biomass, the department of energy told parliamentarians that the main objective of any such exercise, if it was undertaken in the agriculture industry, would be to create jobs.       However, such a move towards the use of biomass would not take place if national food or water security was jeapordised in any way.

This answer was given to the portfolio committee on energy by Muzi Mkhize, chief director hydrocarbons, department of energy (DOE), when briefing parliamentarians on DOE’s current strategy towards biofuels.  He said that in the South African context, a specific requirement of the biofuels strategy was to create a link between first and second economies and the focus was not only on jobs but specifically on creating employment in under-developed areas.

Key incentives

Bio-fuels, he said, like most renewables, required incentives in order to be cost-competitive against conventional fuels, the upside of such a direction being the saving in balance of payments, energy supply security and economic growth factors that were more stable that the volatile traditional oil market.

He referred to 2006 estimates, where a targeted 2% biofuels scenario was estimated to create about 25,000 jobs.

With the IPP third round completed, Mkhize said biofuels would contribute to the national renewable energy policy, the director general, DOE, having already advised that 93 independent power producers (IPPs) had applied for licences in the third round of requests for submissions. Thus biomass, he said, together with IPPs were contributing greatly towards targets that South Africa had in the journey to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

As far as biofuels manufacturing facilities were concerned, Mkhize listed eight locations where bioethanol or biodiesel had or were being licensed. He said that biodiesel would fall within the fuel tax net and manufacturers would receive a rebate of 50%. Bioethanol would not, however.

Incentives upgrade

As was the case with all renewable energy projects, a 50:30:20 depreciation allowance on capital investment over three years would apply but DOE had started discussions which were underway to improve incentives as this was not sufficient to attract investors, it was felt.

“Infant industry” incentives over a twenty-year benchmark period were being looked at, he said, with an initial incentive of 3.5c per litre to 4c, to be recovered through a levy to be included in the national monthly price determinations.

Overproduction threat

It was pointed out by parliamentarians that about 229 million litres of fuel were sold annually for about R9,2bn and if all players in the fuel industry joined the process as required, there would be an excess with about 4-6% of biofuels produced over the national call for 2%. Who would take up the excess, they asked.

Mkhize was also asked what agro studies had been done and how were farmers responding to a possible call for biomass crops. Also, they asked, if there was drought or some similar disaster, what would happen to the fuel industry in the reverse case of a shortage of biomass.

Mkhize said there was a general agreement in place only on agricultural biomass and this was “only in the form of mindset until pricing and subsidy issues were finalised, so accordingly the question of national quantities in relation to fuel company needs did not arise”.  However, he confirmed that the fuel industry would not be allowed to suffer from a shortage of biomass delivered.

Treasury and subsidies

In answer to more questions, Mkhize said a licence to produce biomass would not disallow a farmer from switching crops, say from soya to maize.  But, he added, all this was total speculation until “national treasury came up with the answers on subsidies”.

When MPs complained that the picture given by DOE “was no more than a snapshot of where we were on biofuels exactly one year ago”, Mkhize said he was trying to show the milestones that had been reached in the enormously difficult stage that the fuels industry had reached with regard to the entry of biofuels, which was a strategic issue.

Gas the issue

He said there were issues such as LPG remaining the forerunner of natural gas to be investigated as this household market had to expand and added, “We are looking at the system used commercially of bringing gas from Mozambique to Durban and whether this is the basis for further development.”

Mkhize promised his department would deliver shortly on promises to deliver DOE’s plan for gas expansion but this was not part of the biofuels or biomass study. All such matters were intertwined in terms of the integrated resources plan with the eventual integrated energy plan for the whole country.

Making a profit

On new entrants to biomass to fuel production, Mkhize responded to questions that it had been shown that the breakeven point for any biomass plant was a constantly changing factor over a long period and it was difficult to establish at what point a subsidy of, say, 2% would assist.

He said breakeven studies showed from a 2% profit, moving down to 5% loss for a long while, and then eventually moving up to 10% profit had been the standard established and banks did not like that kind of venture. Models he said were difficult to establish that were both profitable in either the short or long term.

There had been great disappointment when oilcake made from soya had proven too costly for biodiesel and it had been found that better recoveries could made through the food industry. This had proved a setback, Mkhize said.

Sugar cane

In answer to queries on sugar cane possibilities for biomass, as practised in Brazil and possible land shortages in South Africa, Mkhize said that the SA Sugar Assoc had said that land was available but that sugar cane was more likely to be linked to co-generation of electricity energy. Brazil, he said, had a vast subsidized lower income biomass agricultural industry but was producing on a large scale for biodiesel, not bioethanol as would be required in SA.

Mkhize concluded that the DOE biofuels task team was studying very carefully the forward national food security and water situation, “because”, he said, “we cannot afford to subsidize an industry in the form of small scale farmers if we are at the same time threatening food security and water availability at the same time.”

Back to jobs

However, he said that the country at the moment could not ignore the huge potential for job creation that could be brought about by such a new industry and the present lack of agricultural knowledge on the subject would eventually be substituted by experience gained by the new entrants as they established themselves.

In answer to questions on where blending would take place and “whether this was upstream or downstream in the fuel industry”, meaning at refineries or at depots it was assumed, Mkhize said a lot would depend on where the crop was grown; the wish to support crops grown in rural areas; sustainable projects that had been developed; and water availability.

previous articles on this subject
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//cabinetpresidential/biofuels-development-stays-in-limbo/
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//energy/south-africa-at-energy-crossroadsdoe-speaks-out/
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//energy/ipp-3-delayed-until-mid-august-says-doe/

Posted in Energy, Facebook and Twitter, Land,Agriculture, LinkedIn, Trade & Industry0 Comments

Green Paper on nautical limits to make SA oceanic nation

SA to extend its nautical limits…

South Africa’s claim to resources from the sea bed currently extends some 400 nautical miles but with claims by government now submitted to international authorities, this could well run to 700 nautical miles, adding nearly two million square kilometers to South Africa’s “continental shelf”, making the country a nautical and oceanic resource nation of some consequence.

This fact emerged in Parliament recently on the tabling of a Green Paper on the subject but the warning was added by Adv. “Johnny” de Lange that at the same time South Africa must find the resources, both in skills and finance, to administer a “national data base” of resources, weather, oceanic data such as currents and tides, fishing factors and maritime general information that was available to and contributed to by all sectors of government and industry to manage such an additional load .

More environmental changes

With only four submissions to Parliament emanating from the public, department of water and environmental affairs (DWEA) specialist in monitoring, Ashley Naidoo, briefed the parliamentary committee on water and environmental affairs on the new Green Paper on a future South African policy framework falling under the National Environmental Management Act for the management of ocean sectors.

Primarily motivated by the enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the fact that issues like liabilities and the basis for governance of the oceans are still outstanding, DWEA said it has been motivated of late to engage urgently in policy regarding the management of the ocean sector generically, a policy which will be developed shortly and submitted to cabinet as a White Paper.

Other countries

The process, said Naidoo, involves studying the policies of about twelve other countries, such as Norway, Korea, Brazil and Russia which already had frameworks in place whilst including in their deliberations the USA and the United Kingdom who are developing theirs.

Involved also as an ongoing process is a review of sectoral stakeholders, such as mining, fishing and gas exploration; a review of international agreements across all departments that South Africa is subject to; and, finally, shipping policies.

Most important would be the development of a national inter-departmental data base for all to consult with and a regulatory base on which to consider activity applications.  South differed from most nations, Naidoo said, in that 95% of its oceans in the continental area of South Africa were pristine and benefited also from strong currents. South Africa was lucky in this regard, he said.

Fishing, oil, shipping involved

It was noted, Naidoo told parliamentarians, that  whilst each sector, such as the fishing, the oil industry in its many aspects and merchant shipping all had their own conventions and agreements, it was time for SA to develop its own overall policy framework to which all could refer to and fall under.

“Whilst there was a good knowledge base on fishing and on the currents and climate factors, we have very little knowledge on what minerals and where they are located and also pharmaceutical resources”, said Naidoo.

Present situation

The current position, he said, was that South Africa had a line representing a 400 nautical mile ownership on waters adjacent to its coastline; a line which was mapped and fixed. At present, South Africa was negotiating a claim through the relevant international bodies for an 1,800,000 sq kilometers additional ownership over the next five years in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, which would classify South Africa as an “ocean” country of some significance.

Naidoo said that there were some 15,000 ships passing through our waters a year with about 9,000 ships calling at SA ports.   “We have few competitors in the Southern Oceans wanting to gain space, although there are existing zones “owned’ by countries and South Africa will have to learn to live with some of its new oceanic neighbours, such as Norway.

Looking ahead

Naidoo said that with 70% of the globe being covered by water, climatic effects are the major issue affecting the oceanic eco-system at present and consequently there is a need to build on general environmental governance principles in order to handle governance on the high seas.   Provisions had to be made for sea trade; fish and fishing; minerals, pharmaceuticals, sewage and waste disposal.

Also, he said, regulation had to cover environmental issues, climate response, weather matters and the recycling of carbon and nitrogen and heat issues.  Support had to be provided for niche projects on bio-diversity such as mangrove development and delta management and cultural aspects had to be considered. All this would be found in the White Paper.

Naidoo outlined the guiding principles and strategic objectives, Adv. De Lange chairperson the portfolio committee concerned, emphasising that the priority in his view was a national data base across all departments which had to be costed in properly so that Treasury was involved, otherwise regulation of the high seas managed as a national policy would just be a “pipe dream”.

“Government was designing too many policies and not enough working systems and the time has come to deliver”, he said.

Mossel Bay objection

Of the submissions presented orally, notable was the submission from REVAG, an environmental group from Mossel Bay, vehemently objecting to the PetroSA LNG tanker depot and unloading facilities moored offshore within a few hundred metres of the coast at Pinnacle Point, next to Mossel Bay.

REVAG said that they could not wait for such a Bill as envisaged by the Green Paper and called for a moratorium on the PetroSA LNG activities at Mossel Bay and an immediate halting of such operations.

REVAG said that PetroSA’s first application in the form of a land-based EIA to undertake this project was withdrawn in the light of objections initially but it is understood that such an application has now been re-submitted. REVAG said that the projects would be an environmental disaster of major proportions for the area from many aspects.

Adv. De Lange said how surprised he was that only four submissions from the public on the Green Paper had been received by Parliament.
Refer previous articles in this category
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//uncategorized/integrated-energy-plan-iep-is-not-crystal-ball-gazing-says-doe/
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//uncategorized/better-year-for-petrosa-with-offshore-gas-potential/

Posted in Energy, Enviro,Water, Facebook and Twitter, Finance, economic, Fuel,oil,renewables, Land,Agriculture, LinkedIn, Mining, beneficiation, Public utilities, Trade & Industry, Transport0 Comments

Coastal Management Bill stirs up waters

Who owns the seabed…

A  warning was issued by Adv “Johnny” de Lange, chairman of the portfolio committee on water and environmental affairs, during a debate on the subject of National Environmental Management Coastal Management Bill, that nobody, including Transnet, could own seabed other than the nation itself and that he or his committee would not hear of counter-proposals to this fact.

The subject of the debate was a briefing on the Bill was conducted by the department of water and environmental affairs (DWAF) prior to hearings from the public on the proposed changes. A major submission regarding ownership was known to be coming from Transnet regarding its installations at Durban port.

The  Bill, said de Lange, was attempting to legislate on border or property issues dealing with the changing forces of nature, a fact which was always going to hit problems.  In defining an area of South Africa’s coastal waters so that  a narrow strip of ecologically sensitive land and sea along the outline of the coast falls under the aegis and environmental control of the state, an attempt had been made legislatively and this, as suspected, had become an issue, he said.

Previously rejected

DWAF, as a result of previous committee meetings, had found the Bill rejected on a number of issues particularly involving state lines to be drawn up and affected by high tides, estuarine re-alignments and coastal degradation and the Bill was returned but not rejected for the purpose of re-writing definitions and re-wording various clauses.

The Bill originally was put to public comment in November 2012, receiving 330 submissions on contentious issues that mainly involved the impact of the Bill on coastal state property, definitions that affected the rights of private owners  and disagreements with the environmental objectives of the Bill.

New suggestions

In a series of re-definitions proposed by Adv. Raznack of DWAF, such as removing reference to “water courses”; dealing with definitions of flood levels in terms of ten years phases; and re-defining estuaries issues on the basis of whether they are closed to the sea or not; a compromise set of definitions was put to the portfolio committee on water and environmental affairs.

Canals, which may or may not have an ownership issue, carrying water to the sea were another issue under debate and answers appear to have been provided along lines how sea water backs up and the extent to which it backs up in the canal under question. Various re-definitions and wordings throughout the Bill are now proposed.

Western Cape queries

The new proposals were queried by Adv. Gary Birch of the Western Cape provincial water and environmental affairs, who disagreed with the major re-definitions but who made in his submission with a number of counter-proposals on the wording regarding high-tide water marks.

He pointed to the fact that whilst property lines on a river were generally regarded as being at a middle of a river, this could not apply to massive, changing estuarine areas and called for a new look at this problem, also making certain suggestions. These were found acceptable for discussion by the chair.

Further suggestions by Prof. Jenny Whittall of University of the Western Cape, a renowned expert on such matters, were also taken on board by the portfolio committee with particular reference to estuarine areas.

Transnet yet to submit

Adv. de Lange, the committee chairman considered all the inputs by experts particularly refreshing and useful, since he said he was sure that this Bill could be resolved shortly. When MPs raised the question that Transnet had various port structures that were on the sea bed falling under the ambit of the Bill, Adv. de Lange said he was prepared for this.

He said that whilst he awaited the submission of Transnet, the SOE was quite entitled to own such structures at their risk below sea level or even affected by high tide marks. However, he said, “No way can Transnet, or any such body, own the sea bed. That is South Africa’s and that will be the end of that discussion.”

Refer previous articles in this category
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//health/coastal-environment-proposals-getting-clearer/
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//mining-beneficiation/tougher-rules-ensvisaged-with-new-environmental-law/

Posted in Enviro,Water, Facebook and Twitter, Fuel,oil,renewables, Land,Agriculture, LinkedIn, Public utilities, Special Recent Posts, Trade & Industry, Transport0 Comments

Carbon Tax under attack from Eskom, Sasol, EIUG

Treasury determined on carbon tax…..

clampInsofar as the policy behind the need to implement a carbon tax, for whatever reason,  there appears to a vast disconnect between cabinet and the various affected government departments, treasury and energy users, said Mike Roussow, head of the Energy Intensive Users Group (EIUG).

This main point arose in a discussion group called together by chair, Sisa Njikelana, of the parliamentary portfolio committee of energy in an attempt to find some common group on the need for such a tax.    He had invited the various parties for a round-table discussion on the subject in order to put their views.

Major run in

Present at the meeting were such major players such as Eskom, Exxaro, BHP Billiton, the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA), the pulp and paper industry and Sasol.      Treasury was represented by treasury directors Ismael Mamoniat and Cecil Morden.

However, with only members of the portfolio committee on energy present but no representatives of department of energy (DoE), department of water and  environmental affairs (DWEA) or department of agriculture and fisheries (DAFF), nor any other portfolio committees such as trade and industry or environmental affairs, the discussions had little depth, said Rossouw.

Little by little says treasury

Treasury added to the discussion by stating that the point of departure was the White Paper on Climate Change and this was the basis for the tax proposals before them. The object was to change behaviour but unlike smoking legislation, such a tax would be introduced at a very low level so that energy users with emissions got used to the idea, thus giving a longer period to adjust, bearing in mind the costs of doing so.

“The worst scenario would be to wait and to introduce a sudden and crippling tax in years ahead” said Mamoniat.    The treasury officials referred to shale gas and sea gas possibilities, recognizing that these  may change the energy mix or the energy scenario, and treasury officials noted that whilst business did not like taxes and would object to their introduction on principle, a system had to be started and once going this would change behaviour.

Why be first, says business

Much of the debate centered around the fact that South Africa, with its slow rate of economic growth, business was not in a position to contribute to being a world leader, least of all being amongst the first to introduce such a tax globally.     “Perhaps we should not be leaders, but simply fast followers”, said one party to the debate who objected to the tax.

Eskom said it was saving most of its comments for the official responses to the carbon tax policy proposals recently gazetted but said that every unit it had was running at full capacity during the winter period and the cold weather currently being experienced, all effort being expended to accommodate the integrated resource plan (IRP), the anchor document for energy direction “to which the carbon tax proposals makes not one reference”, they complained.

Ducks not in a row, says Eskom

The Eskom team presenting, headed by Ms Caroline Henry, acting finance director, was pointed when said it was totally premature to introduce such a tax especiallywhen DWAE and DOE were still working on producing an integrated energy plan for the country.      The treasury proposals, she said, represented bad timing in every respect, bearing in mind that President Zuma had already announced that the country had no intention in changing its investment conditions or the economic scenario with any new conditions.     Such proposals were totally inappropriate therefore at this time, Eskom said.

Eskom added that the IRP already came up with a 34% savings factor on emissions but what was not needed at this stage, they concluded, were additional costs and further taxes added to a plan they had been working to for a long time.   Mamoniat appeared unmoved by this objection.

Sasol firm in objections

Sasol volunteered the remark that to introduce a carbon tax fully knowing that the country was totally reliant on coal gave the impression that they were out of touch with reality. They pointed to the fact that cost of the country’s exports were mainly energy intensive resulting in South Africa loosing competitiveness, if this course were adopted.

Sasol agreed that a carbon tax was one of many tools that could be used in causing industry to further mitigate the effect of carbon emissions but its introduction now was premature, they said. The costs to Sasol would be prohibitive in any case when applied to certain operations.

“We should not introduce a tool that can make no difference to a situation”, said the Sasol representative, who added, “Asking not to introduce a tax is not to say we are doing nothing.  Plenty is being done in mitigation of emissions. This country is one of the leaders carbon reduction programmes worldwide”, they added.

Liquid fuels industry over committed

SAPIA called for a practical approach and asked what really the industry could do that was not already being done. Already the petroleum industry was over-committed to modernisation and new fuel specifications.    The current world oil importation story placed the industry in a delicate position, as treasury must have surely realized, they said.

Quite clearly in the petroleum industry, said SAPIA, there is no satisfactory return on investment and the only sensible recourse in their mind was to provide conditions where the motorist was called upon to reduce consumption.

EIUG queries common approach

EIUG repeated their initial supposition that there appeared no joint departmental overall government approach to such a tax which appeared to be the brainchild of treasury, possibly in conjunctions with DWEA. They said that it appeared that neither appreciated how much was already done and what was being planned in terms of the climate response policy calls, both globally and locally.

“We cannot and should not be the world leaders in the introduction of carbon tax”, they said. “Aside from this, there are many things wrong with the way the tax is constructed.”

Eskom queries basis of tax

Eskom concluded that it was disingenuous of treasury department to suggest that nobody was doing anything answer to reduce emissions.  In any case, the tax was not being introduced at a low rate, they said and Eskom produced figures showing the tax as suggested when applied to current production output numbers which they said would be quite crippling. They added that the effects of the tax on the Medupi and Kusile power station projects when in production totally contradicted treasury calculations on the same subject.

The discourse was closed by the chair on the note that carbon tax as a proposal could not proceed in a vacuum and he acknowledged the point that it seemed reasonable not to consider this before the production of the final integrated energy plan had been tabled and agreed upon, let alone agreement on the final energy mix involving nuclear, gas and clean energy renewables.

Treasury appears dedicated to tax

Parliament is now empowered to deal with a Money Bill as a result of the 2011 amendments to the Constitution should the carbon tax policy paper result in a draft Bill for public comment but it could be considered unusual in these early stages of parliamentary development on the issue to exercise such muscle and the matter no doubt depends on what message comes down from cabinet to party whips. The Bill would come from the Minister of Finance.

Refer previous articles in this category
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//cabinetpresidential/treasury-sticks-to-its-guns-on-carbon-tax/
http://parlyreportsa.co.za//cabinetpresidential/carbon-tax-not-popularly-received-by-parliament/

 

Posted in Cabinet,Presidential, Electricity, Enviro,Water, Finance, economic, Fuel,oil,renewables, Health, Trade & Industry0 Comments

Environmental Affairs speed things up with SEAs

SEAs for major infrastructure projects…..

Environmental minister Edna Molewa said during her budget vote speech that strategic environmental impact reports (SEAs) would be shortly introduced, saying that she was aware that her department may be holding things up with outstanding environmental-impact assessments (EIAs) which applied to specific localised projects.

The idea is to speed things up “without undermining sound environmental-impact management principles”, minister Molewa said and such a strategy for environmental-impact assessments generally to address key national concerns “is well under way”.

National overiding interests

SEAs, she said, are typically carried out on one or more large national projects or programmes, as distinct to environmental-impact assessments (EIAs), which apply to specific localised projects. The idea is to hasten the process “without undermining sound environmental-impact management principles.” Such a strategy for environmental-impact assessments generally to address key concerns “is well under way,” minister Molewa said.

On the subject of major national infrastructure projects, DEA’s Lize McCourt said, in a separate presentation to Parliament, that the department had undertaken an evaluation of the eighteen Strategic Infrastructure Projects (SIPs) which the cabinet has named as essential to the National Development Plan (NDP).

Presidential overwatch on SIPs

“We have looked at what will be the best approach in terms of environmental regulation for each one in terms of the departmental clusters involved and made a preliminary evaluation”, she said.     She indicated that a “streamlined” environmental authorisation process was to be introduced by DEA to facilitate the implementation of all the SIPs projects being overseen by the Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission (PICC).     The idea of the SEA was born.

1,300 EIAs outstanding

There are currently some 1,300 active EIA applications being considered by the nine provinces and here again DEA stressed they were attempting to sped up processes with these, with possibly a single approval process involved, rather than several separate processes.

Posted in Earlier Stories, Energy, Enviro,Water, Finance, economic, human settlements, Mining, beneficiation, Public utilities, Trade & Industry, Transport0 Comments

Electric cars part of SA climate change response

Green for go on electric cars…..

green carIn terms of SA’s climate change response policy  the department of environmental affairs (DEA) have launched their Emission Electric Vehicle Programme, known to many as the “Green Car” programme.  The centre chosen for the final development of the prototype vehicles will be at the Gerotek test facility in Pretoria.

Enviro objectives 

This initiative was originally announced at the COP17 conference in Durban recently hosted by South Africa and it seeks to ensure that South Africa practically contributes to the reduction of environmentally harmful gases by promoting the use of cleaner sources of fuel by the automotive industry.

The recent statement says that the fleet of zero emission electric vehicles are now fully powered by solar energy from a high-tech assembly of solar tracking panels housed at the department’s head office, rather than using power from the national grid.

Says the statement, “The high tech solar panels powering the vehicles generate enough electricity to power the fleet and feed back into the national grid, further incentivising the move for other government departments and ordinary citizens to consider traveling green.”

Part of climate change response

DEA adds that the programme also keeps South Africa in line with international developments in automotive “green” technology and is in line with the National Climate Change Response referred to by President Zuma in his state of the nation address.

Amongst the expected parties coordinating with each other on the “Green Cars” project, such as DTI, and the transport, science, technology and energy departments are both SARS and national treasury.

Full backing

dipou Peters2Said minister Dipou Peters earlier at the launch in Pretoria, “The project is aimed at demonstrating the capability and readiness for  South Africa to transition to a low carbon path in the transport sector with the use of a combination of renewable energy technology; state of the art electric vehicles and a carbon neutral offset mechanism.”

Four Nissan LEAF test cars are to be placed at the Department of Environmental Affairs disposal for usage and testing in the initial phase of the project, to be run over three years. The LEAF, is the world’s first mass produced electric vehicle, which will be launched later this year in South Africa by Nissan as the first car manufacturer to introduce a one hundred percent electric vehicle into the country.

Posted in Electricity, Energy, Enviro,Water, Trade & Industry, Transport0 Comments

air quality dispersion comments called for

strelitsia_smallair quality regulations for comment…

The department of environmental affairs (DEA) has published draft regulations regarding air quality in terms of the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act referring to air dispersion modelling and has called for comments.

The regulations, says an explanation from DEA, provide a technical guideline for demonstrating compliance with air dispersion modelling for quality management in South Africa which is applicable to the need in this country for an air quality management plan, prioritising areas in such a plan, an atmospheric impact report and assessments accordingly.

New basis of controls

The regulations, which are in draft stage, are accompanied by the comment that that the Air Quality Act as a whole represents a distinct shift from exclusively source-based air pollution control to holistic and integrated effects based air quality management. Air dispersion modelling is part of this, they state.

DEA also states that the objectives of the regulations and guideline are to standardise model applications for regulatory purposes and to make sure that dispersion modelling studies are compatible across different cases.

Any written comments should be submitted to DEA by 14 February.

Posted in Enviro,Water, Health, Public utilities, Trade & Industry0 Comments


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